When it comes to rigging in a production or many productions the name of the game is reusability and automation. In that sense rigging is very similar to traditional software development, as we also have to build systems that are easily maintainable, extensible and reusable. There are a few ways to achieve that in rigging and today I am going to look at some of them. The reason I wanted to write this is that rigging systems are one of the big things I wished I had learned earlier.
Disclaimer: This post will probably come out very opinionated and those opinions are going to be based on my own experience, which really, is not that extensive. Additionally, even though there are going to be informative bits, I am writing this more of a way to share my thoughts instead of trying to teach anything as again, I am not really qualified in any way to do that.
Also, please bear in mind that the larger portion of this post is going to be very speculative since I am talking about tools that I have not really used myself.
A rigging system
I just want to briefly go over what I mean by rigging systems. Essentially, everything that takes a model and produces a rig out of it is a rigging system to me. That means if you just rig an entire thing manually you are the rigging system. If you use a tool similar to maya’s HumanIK that is your rigging system. That means that any system that by following a set of instructions can on it’s own produce a rig is a rigging system. Other than just building actual node networks, rigging systems should provide easy ways to save and load a bunch of properties and settings such as deformer weights, blendshapes, control shapes, etc.
Rigging system types
With the definition out of the way we can have a look at the types of rigging systems out there.
Auto rigging tool
Disclaimer: This is going to be the most speculative portion of this post, as I have never used one of these solutions, other just having a brief look at them.
The auto rigging tool is a rigging system which takes care of everything we talked above by providing you with some sort of a guiding system to define the proportions and often the type of a rig (biped, quadruped, wings, .etc) and then using these guides, it builds node networks which become rig components.
Some examples of auto rigging tools are maya’s HumanIk which I mentioned above and also a popular non-Autodesk one is Rapid Rig.
There are a lot of them online and also they are usually a big part of rigging showreels as it seems that every rigger who starts learning scripting, goes for an auto rigging solution at some point. Including me.
Now, the problem that I have with this kind of rigging systems is the lack of extensibility. I have not seen an auto rigging tool with any sort of an API so far. That means that, for every rig you built you have only a limited number of available components (that number might be a large one but still limited). What I mean by that, there is probably only one arm component available and even though there might be many options on how to build that arm, there is a chance you are not going to find what you are looking for and would like to insert your own logic somewhere in that component, but there is no way to do that.
Mentioning the many options brings me to the next issue I see with auto rigging tools – performance and clutter. The way I see it, the more options you want to support inside of just one single component, the more clutter you would introduce in the logic of that component, in order to accommodate those options. Additionally, if everything is happening behind the scenes, I have no other way of knowing what the tool creates than just opening the node editor and having a look at the networks, which as you could imagine is not going to be fun on large rigs. That opaqueness scares me, as I would not know about potential node clutter introduced in my scene.
That brings me to my next point about auto rigging tools, which is the fact that everything is stored baked down in the scene. What I mean by that is, the auto rigging tool might give you some options for rebuilding parts of the rig after they have been created, but ultimately everything we store is baked into node networks. Yes we can save our weights and maybe some properties outside of the scene file, but these would be things that go on top of the auto rig product. There is no way to store how we actually constructed that rig. Then if I need to change the position/orientation of a joint, how do I go about that? What if, god forbid, the proportions of the model have changed? Do I delete everything and rebuild it? And if I have to do that, what happens with the parts of the rig that I have added on top of the auto rig, do I need to manually rebuild them as well?
The last thing I want to mention about auto rigging tools is UI. I mean, it is usually bloody horrible. I think it is probably all down to the native UI tools that maya gives us, which all feel very clunky. They just don’t seem to work for anything as complex as a rigging system. All of the auto rigging tools I have seen make an extensive use of tightly packed buttons, checkboxes and text fields in loads of collapsible sections or tabs, which just doesn’t seem to cut it in 2017. Again, I think the main issue there is that Maya’s native tools are just not enough to build anything more intuitive. That being said, PySide has been available for a while.
So, if you are going to be building an auto rigging tool, please keep in mind the following ideas can improve your work with that rigging system a lot
- creating some sort of an API for easily extending/modifying the functionality of the tool, mainly by creating new or editing existing components
- storing information about the actual building of the rig instead of just the baked down version of it, in order to enable you to easily rebuild it when changes need to happen
- create a more intuitive UI than what is already out there. Node graph maybe?
Going beyond auto rigging tools, we have rigging frameworks. Those are systems which do not necessarily have any high levels components such as arms/legs/spines built into them, but instead they provide you with the tools to create such components and save them for later use. The only system of this type that I know of is mGear. Incidentally, it does actually provide a high level modular system called Shifter that does give you everything that an auto rigging tool would. The good thing here, though, is that using the actual framework you can build your own modular rigging system and extend and modify it a lot.
Now, since I have never actually used it take everything I say with a grain of salt, but from what I understand, similarly, to an auto rigging tool you would build everything in the viewport and then save it as a baked down version. I do not know how easy or difficult rebuilding components is, but if anything has been built on top of them it would have to be also manually rebuilt.
What I really like about mGear, though, is the open source aspect of it. The fact that you can grab it and build out of it a rigging system that would suit your needs perfectly, is amazing.
Now, this one I think is the only system that you can create yourself without any scripting. Even though, it might be a bit slower to work with, I think in terms of results you would be able to get everything you get out of an auto rigging tool.
So, what I mean by guidable modules is, say, storing a rigged IK chain with all the controls on it in a file and then when you need an IK chain in a rig you bring the one from the file. The rigged IK chain would have some sort of guides (usually just locators) that would be able to reposition the joints and stretch the chain without actually introducing any values on your controls and also the stretch values would be recalculated so there is no actual stretch on the chain, but instead the modified version becomes the default state.
I know that sounds a bit weird and it probably won’t sit well with many of you, since referencing/importing files is often considered dirty because of all the stuff that gets carried across. That being said, if you clean up after yourself, that would not be an issue.
Additionally, if you are referencing the components in the scene, you can modify the components themselves and the changes would be carried across all of your rigs utilizing that component.
What is more, the same idea can easily be applied to a rigging framework or an auto rigging tool you built yourself, so it removes the issue which arises when changes need to be made.
Rigging framework with modular rigging system through an API
Now, the last rigging system I want to talk about is one that combines aspects of all previously mentioned ones, but in a way where extendability, maintainability and reusability are all taken care of. That comes at the expense of not having a UI, having rules and conventions and requiring a thorough programming knowledge.
The way an user interacts with this rigging system is entirely through an API. The way the rigs are stored is in actual building information rather than a baked down version, which means that every time you open the rig it is built on the spot, making changes incredibly easy and non-destructive. And the way the components are created is through an actual Python class, benefiting from all the benefits (and unfortunately negatives) of object oriented programming.
So, the rigging process with this sort of a system is going to be writing code. Of course, we still need to paint weights and store control shapes, but these are easily saved and loaded back in. Here is an example of what a rig might look like in this system.
initializeRiggingStructure() # Creates the boilerplate for a rig - top/god node, etc.
spine = bodyCommands.spine(spineChain)
arm = bodyCommands.arm(armChain, spine.end)
... ## Build all the components you would want
loadGuides() function refers to a file which contains all our guides, similar to the previous rigging system. In this one, though, it is up to you what sort of guides you use. For example, for an arm you would just draw out your arm chain and the module will take it from there.
This is the rigging system that I like using. It feels much more intuitive to me as I do not feel any restrictions from anything, be that UI, pre-built components that I don’t have access to, etc. If I want a slightly different module I can just inherit from the old one and make my changes. If there is a model change I just need to reposition my guides and run my code.
The main downside of it is that it might get a while a new person to get used to such a system. Having a nice documentation and examples would help a lot. Another thing, people might feel uncertain about is the complete lack of UI, but again for me it is liberating to not be constrained by buttons, text field, etc.
I am very happy with the current rigging system I am using described in the previous section. That being said, though, I cannot help but think of things I would like to see in a rigging system.
For starters, let us go back at UI. Even though, I feel great about being able to do whatever I want with the code, having an UI for certain things would be much quicker. What ideally I would like to do is be able to have both working at the same time. Whatever I write needs to be reflected in the UI and, the harder bit, whatever I do in the UI I need to be reflected somewhere in my build file, so next time I build the rig it comes with the changes made from the UI as well. Having an UI modifying my code, though, does not sound amazing, so we need a different way of handling that, which could potentially be metadata. The one issue I have with relying too much on metadata is that it is not immediately obvious what is going on.
Another thing I would really like to see at some point is some sort of a rigging system standard where riggers around the world can exchange components and general bits from the rigs with each other. To be honest, though, I am both excited and worried about something like this, as introducing a standard might significantly hinder innovation.
The big thing that lies in the future, though, is getting a higher level of interactiveness while rigging. Complex builds using the rigging system from the last section can take minutes to build, which means that for every single change I make in the guides file or the build I will need to wait a lot to actually see the result. That is making the process a lot more obscure, when you just need to keep changing stuff in order to hit the right values. Imagine, though, that we have all that building happening in real-time. Say I have the guides opened in one window, the build file in my text editor and I have the product in another window. Ideally, what I would like is by moving something in my guides file, to trigger a rebuild of that “dirtied” portion of the build which would result in the changes applied in my third window without actually deforming my model.
I am saying this lies in the future, though, aspects of it are already taken care by the guidable components method described above. That being said, that full level of interactiveness is what I would ideally like to achieve.
As I said in the beginning, a lot of these are just my own speculations, which means that I am still trying to figure most of this out. That is why, I would love to hear your tips, opinions and ideas on rigging systems, so please do share them!